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Herpetofaunas of Kazakhstan in the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and

 Cenozoic

 

Elena G. Kordikova, Almaty

 

Abstract. On the basis of original and compiled data the dynamics of taxonomic diversity of fossil and extant amphibians and reptiles of Kazakhstan is traced from the end of the Paleozoic till the present time. Analysis of familial and species changes shows that the living amphibians and reptiles of the region are not numerous and they compose a minor part of the very diverse faunas of the past. The composition of the fauna changed several times  since the  end  of  the Paleozoic: in the Permian, Late Jurassic, Late Cretaceous (Coniacean-Lower Santonian, Maastrichtian), Middle Eocene  and  Middle  Miocene. Phyllospondyles and rhachitomes, seymouriomorphs,  cotylosaurs, synapsidas and prolacertiles dominated in the Permian biotypes  of the region. The expansion of turtles and dinosaurs in the Cretaceous is remarkable. In the end of the Cretaceous as is generally known a faunistic change occurred in which new groups of crocodiles and turtles appeared and the previously widely diversified groups of dinosaurs disappeared. The decrease in the familial diversity of reptiles takes place in the Maestrichtian and Paleocene but this is followed by an increase in the Eocene. The increase in the diversity of fresh-water turtles in the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene to all appearance took place against a background of decreasing numbers and diversity of crocodiles.  The decrease of testudinids since the Middle Miocene proceeded in the increase of a number and diversity of squamatas. A study of the distribution of various groups of amphibians and reptiles in the past shows that their change could happen due to the increment of contradictions in evolutionary strategies of whole biocenosis and separate phylogeneses composed of it, on the one hand, and changes in the phylogenetic relationships with environment, on the other hand. The history of the formation of extant herpetofauna of Kazakhstan is considered the kernel of which consists of species of genera Bufo, Rana,  Agrionemys,  Teratoscincus, Cyrtodactylus,  Alsophylax,  Trapelus, Phrynocephalus, Eremias, Eryx, Natrix, Coluber,  Elaphe, Psammophis, Vipera and some others. Taking into account zoogeographical distribution of fossil and extant amphibians and reptiles of the region and their landscape and ecological specialization it is suggested that the herpetofauna of the region appears to be formed in the end of the Paleogene and the beginning of the Neogene and that the Middle Asian (26%), European and Siberian (20%) and European   and Mediterranean (15%) elements dominate in it. It is suggested that the extant herpetofauna of Kazakhstan most closely resembles those of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Russia and Mongolia and, to a lesser extent, that of China.

     

Kordikova, E.G. (1998): Herpetofauna in the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic of Kazakhstan. - Vestnik KazGU, 6: 61-109.

TP C 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109

 

Herpetofaunas of Kazakhstan in the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic

Fossil and Living amphibians and reptiles

    

Fig.1. Ratio of paleoherpetological publications on different fossil groups of amphibians and reptiles of Kazakhstan.

   

AMPHIBIA LINNAEUS, 1767

T e m n o s p o n d y l i  Zittel, 1888

    Phyllospondyli Zittel, 1890

  Branchiosauridae Fritsch, 1879

cf. Branchiosaurus sp.:  U.Carboniferous-L.Permian, South-Eastern Kazakhstan,   

   Kurty River (Kuznetsov & Ivakhnenko, 1981)

    Rhachitomi Watson, 1919

Rhachitomi indet.:  L.Permian, Central Kazakhstan, Ters-Akkan (Efremov, 1951)

    Stereospondyli Zittel, 1890

  Plagiosauridae Abel, 1919

Plagioscutum caspiense Shishkin, 1986: M.Triassic, Western Kazakhstan, Inder 

  Lake

 

C a u d a t a  Oppel, 1801

   Karauroidea Estes, 1981

  Karauridae Ivachnenko, 1978

Karaurus sharovi Ivachnenko, 1978:  U.Jurassic, Southern Kazakhstan, Karatau

   Ambystomatoidea Noble, 1931

  Scapherpetontidae Auffenberg et Goin, 1959

Eoscapherpeton sp.:  L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Baybishe (Nesov,

   1985b)

Eoscapherpetontinae indet.: Turonian-?Coniacian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili (Kordikova et al., 1996); L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Nessov, 1988)

    Prosirenoidea Estes, 1981

  Prosirenidae Estes, 1969

Prosirenidae indet.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Baybishe (Nesov & Udovichenko, 1986)

Cryptobranchoidea Dunn, 1922

Cryptobranchidae Fitzinger et Gray, 1825

Zaissanurus beliajevae Tschernov, 1959:  U.Eocene-L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin, Konur-Kura, Kiin-Kerish, Kara-Biryuk, Tayzhuzgen, Kusto-Kyzylkain, Aksyir and others (Chkhikvadze, 1982; Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Andrias nov.sp.: U.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin, Maylibay (Chkhikvadze, 1982)

Andrias karelcapeki Ckhikvadze, 1982: L.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Dzhaman-Gara (Vympel, Poltinnik),  usto-Kyzylkain (Tri bogatyrya),  Óngur-Kulídzha and others

Andrias sp.: L.Miocene, Dzhungarian Alatau, Aktau Mountains; U.Miocene-L.Pliocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Gusinyy perelyot (Chkhikvadze, 1982)

Cryptobranchidae indet.:  L.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Kusto-Kyzylkain (Bobrovaya struya); Dzhungarian Alatau, Aktau Mountains;  U.Miocene-L.Pliocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Gusinyy perelyot (Chkhikvadze, 1984a)

  Hynobiidae Cope, 1860

Salamandrella keyserlingi (Dybowski, 1870) - Siberian (Manchurian) salamander:  recent, North Kazakhstan; range from Kamchatka Peninsula, Kurile  Islands, Sakhalin  Island and Maritime Territory to all Siberia and Ural to Arkhangelísk area, Komi Republic, Goríkiy and Permí areas, Mari Republic - Russia;  Northern Mongolia; North-Eastern China; Korea; North Japan

Ranodon cf. sibiricus Kessler, 1866:  U.Pliocene, Transili Alatau, Kiikbay (Averianov & Tjutkova, 1995)

Ranodon sibiricus Kessler, 1866 - Siberian salamander: recent, Kazakhstan, Dzhungarian Alatau; China, extreme west of Xinjiang

   Salamandroidea Cope, 1890

 Salamandridae Gray, 1825

Chelotriton sp.: M.Miocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region,  alkaman (Tleuberdina et 

   al., 1993)

Triturus vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758) - common newt:  recent, Kazakhstan, Emba River, North Aral Sea region, probably Balkhash Lake region; Western Siberia to Altai area; Europe; north-eastern coast of Black Sea (details in Bannikov et al., 1977)

  Proteidae Gray, 1825

Mioproteus sp.:  L.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Kusto-Kyzylkain (Ryzhaya sopka) (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Proteidae indet.: M.Miocene, Turgay, Kentyubek (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976)

 

ďBishara backaĒ nom. nud.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region,  Baybishe (Nesov,   Udovichenko, 1986)

Amphibia indet.: ?L.Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan, Priozyornyy quarry (Prizemlin, 1993)

 

       A n u r a  Dumeril, 1804

  Bufonidae Gray, 1825

Bufonidae indet.: U.Oligocene, L.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Ashutas (Zmey Gorynych) (Chkhikvadze, 1985); M.Miocene, Turgay, Kentyubek (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976)

Bufo sp.: M.Miocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985); Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Kalkaman (Tleuberdina et al., 1993); U.Miocene-L.Pliocene, Gusinyy perelyot (Iskakova, 1969)

Bufo cf. raddei Strauch, 1876:  U.Miocene-L.Pliocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Gusinyy perelyot (Iskakova, 1969; Chkhikvadze, 1984a)

Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) - European common toad:  recent, North-Western, North-Eastern and Eastern Kazakhstan; North-Western Africa; Europe;  Crimea; Caucasus; souther of North Asia - from Korea and Japan on the east,  to Eastern China on the south, and to the South of Siberia and the Far East on the north

B. danatensis Pisanetz,  1978 - middle-asian toad:  recent, Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin (foothills of Saur Range), Southern Balkhash Lake region; China, Western Xinjiang; Southern Turkmenistan; Tadzhikistan; Kyrgyzstan; Western Mongolia

B. viridis (Laurenti, 1768) - green toad:  recent,  all Kazakhstan exclude of its northern part; China, Western Xinjiang; Western Mongolia; Europe; north coast of Africa; Crimea; Caucasus; Near East, Central Asia

  Discoglossidae Günther, 1859

Discoglossidae indet.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Kordikova et al. 2001)

Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1761) - fire-bellied toad:  recent, Kazakhstan, floodplain of Ural River; Central and Eastern Europe; Crimea

  Pelobatidae Bonaparte, 1850

Eopelobates sp.: L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Pelobatidae indet.:  L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin, Tayzhuzgen (Talagay), Dzhaman-Gara (Podorozhnik); U.Oligocene, Central Kazakhstan, Kyzyl-Kak (Chkhikvadze, 1984a)

Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) - common spadefoot:  recent, Western Kazakhstan, Irgiz and Turgay Basin; Central and Eastern Europe; Northern Caucasus

  Ranidae Gray, 1825

Ranidae indet.:  U.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985);  M.Miocene, Turgay, Kentyubek (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976)

Rana sp.:  M.Miocene, Turgay, Kentyubek (Bendukidze & Chkhikvadze, 1976); Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Kalkaman (Savinov, 1972);  U.Miocene-L.Pliocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Gusinyy perelyot (Iskakova, 1969)

Rana cf. arvalis Nilsson, 1842:  M.Miocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Kalkaman (Tleuberdina et al., 1993)

R. arvalis Nilsson,  1842 - moor frog:  recent,  north half of Kazakhstan; Siberia to Baikal Lake and Transbaikalia; Europe (details in Bannikov et al., 1977: 58)

R. asiatica Bedriaga,  1858 - central asian frog:  recent, Kazakhstan, Balkhash Lake region, Chu River, Chyornaya River region; North-Eastern China; Eastern Kyrgystan; Western Siberia to Sakhalin (to the north of 71įN); Northern Mongolia and Korea

Rana cf. ridibunda Pallas, 1771:  M.Miocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Kalkaman (Tleuberdina et al., 1993);  U.Miocene-L.Pliocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Gusinyy perelyot (Iskakova, 1969)

R. ridibunda Pallas, 1771 - marsh frog: recent, southern half of Kazakhstan;  China, Western Xinjiang; Central and Southern Europe; Crimea, Caucasus; North Africa; Near East, Central Asia

R. temporaria Linnaeus, 1758 - common frog: recent, North-Western Kazakhstan;

   Europe

Anura indet.: L.Santonian,  North-Eastern Aral Sea region,  Baybishe  (Nesov,1985b); M.Eocene, L.Oligocene, L.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Kusto-Kyzylkain (Ryzhaya sopka) (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

      There is information about the Early Permian fauna of stegocephales which was found on Zhinishke River in Transili region (Geologiya SSSR, 1971: 353) as well about footprints of ancient tetrapods in Dzhezkazgan copper mine and in the Lower Permian deposits, downstream of Ili River (Bazhanov, 1964).

 

Reptilia indet.:  L.Permian, Western Kazakhstan, Sogur-Say (Efremov & Víyushkov,  1955)

 

REPTILIA LINNAEUS, 1767

 S e y m o u r i o m o r p h a  Watson, 1917

  Discosauriscidae Romer, 1947

Utegenia shpinari Kuznetzov et Ivachnenko, 1981: U.Carboniferous-L.Permian, South-Eastern Kazakhstan, Kurty

  Seymouriidae Williston, 1911

Gnorhimosuchus satpaevi Efremov, 1951: L.Permian, Central Kazakhstan, Ters-Akkan

 

C o t y l o s a u r i a  Cope, 1880

Cotylosauria indet.:  L.Permian,  Central Kazakhstan, Ters-Akkan (Efremov, 1951); Permian, Southern Kazakhstan, Sorkolí Lake (Bakirov, Kuznetsov, 1962)

 

T e s t u d i n a t a  Linnaeus, 1758

Testudinata indet.: ?U.Jurassic, Southern Kazakhstan, Ikantu Valley (Kuznetsov, 1964)

 

    Pleurodira Dumeril & Bibron, 1834

  Pelomedusidae Cope, 1868

Pelomedusidae indet.:  M.Eocene, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay (Chkhikvadze, 1984b)

    Cryptodira Dumeril & Bibron, 1834

   Trionychoidea Bell, 1828

  Trionychidae Bell, 1828

Trionychinae indet.:  L.Cretaceous, Dzhungarian Alatau, Baytuma (Kordikova et al., 1993), U.Cretaceous, Zholaman; Southern Kazakhstan, Kara-Imchek ( Órdikova,  1994c), Alymtau Range (Khozatskiy, 1957); Ili Basin, Malyye Kalkany: Dzhurtas, Karoy, Karacheku (Efremov, 1944); Turonian-?Coniacian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili (Kordikova et al., 1996); L.Santonian, Southern Kazakhstan,  Kazgurt (Suslov,  1987); Miocene, South-Eastern Kazakhstan, Bala-Boguty, Uspenovka  ( Órdikova, 1994c); M.Miocene, Turgay Basin, Aksayadyr (Khozatskiy, 1957)

"Paraplastomenus" sp.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Baykhozha

"Paraplastomenus" riabinini (Kusnetzov et Ckhikvadze, 1987):  L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Kuznetsov, Chkhikvadze, 1987), Buroynak, Baybishe; Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Kordikova, 1990)

"Paraplastomenus" cf. riabinini (Kuznetzov et Ckhikvadze, 1987): ?Santonian, Central Kazakhstan, Southern Kyzyl-Kiya (Kordikova, 1990)

P. mlynarskii (Ckhikvadze, 1970b):  M.Eocene, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay, Aksyir, Chakpaktas, Ulíken-Ulasty, Chaybulak

P. gabunii (Ckhikvadze,1984b): M.Eocene, Southern Balkhash Lake region, Chinzhaly (Chkhikvadze, 1990); Zaysan Basin,  ņksyir (Chkhikvadze, 1990)

P. minusculus  (Ckhikvadze,  1973): M.Eocene, South-Eastern Kazakhstan, Kolpakov Basin, Chinzhaly; M.Eocene-U.Oligocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1973, 1990); M.Eocene-L.Oligocene, South-Eastern Kazakhstan, Ili Basin, Aktau; U.Oligocene, North-Western Ustyurt, Kyzylbulak (Kordikova, 1991b)

Ulutrionychini indet.: U.Paleocene, Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhilga (Kordikova,1991c)

?Axestemys riabinini (Kusnetzov et Ckhikvadze, 1987): L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region,  Shakh-Shakh (Kuznetsov & Chkhikvadze, 1987), Buroynak, Baybishe; Tashkent Chuli region,

   Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Kordikova, 1990)

?Axestemys cf. muyuensis (Lei & Ye, 1985): M.Eocene, Zaysan Basin, Chaybulak, Kalmakpay, Aksyir (Chkhikvadze, 1990)

Ulutrionyx zaisanensis (Ckhikvadze, 1971): M.Eocene-U.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin, Kiin-Kerish, Tayzhuzgen, Kusto-Kyzylkain, Tuzkabak

U. turgaicus (Kusnetzov et Ckhikvadze, 1977): L.Oligocene, Turgay, Chelkar-Teniz,

   Donguz-Tau

U. cf. turgaicus (Kusnetzov & Ckhikvadze,  1977):  U.Oligocene, Central Kazakhstan,  Ayakkasaun,  Tosbulak ( Órdikova, 1994c); Zaysan Basin, Maylibay, Tayzhuzgen (Talagay), Dzhaman-Gara (Podorozhnik) (Chkhikvadze, 1989)

U. ninae (Ckhikvadze, 1971ŗ): U.Oligocene, Central Kazakhstan, Kyzyl-Kak

Ulutrionychini indet.:  U.Oligocene, Betpakdala, Ayakbuldyryk ( Órdikova, 1994c)

Pelodiscus jakhimovitchae Ckhikvadze, 1989ŗ: M.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Sarybulak, Aksyir, Kalmakpay, Dzhaman-Gara,  Kyzyl-Kesek

Pelodiscus sp.: L.-M.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Akzhal, Ashudasty, Shinkurgay, Kyzylgay ( Órdikova, 1994c)

  Adocidae Cope, 1870

Shachemys baibolatica Kusnetzov, 1976: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Kuznetsov, 1976; Kordikova et al., 1996),  Buroynak (V.Kuznetsovís determination), Baybishe (Kuznetsov & Shilin, 1983)

Adocus sp.:  L.Cretaceous,  Dzhungarian Alatau Range, Baytuma (Kordikova et al., 1993);  L.Santonian,  North-Eastern Aral Sea region,  Shakh-Shakh, Buroynak (Nessov, 1984a); Santonian-L.Campanian, Ili Basin, Malyye Kalkany: Dzhurtas (Nessov, 1995); U.Paleocene, Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhilga (Nesov, 1987ŗ)

A. foveatus Nessov et Khosatzky, 1977: L.Santonian, Northern Aral Sea region,  Buroynak (Nessov, 1984a), Baybishe (Nesov, 1988)

A. orientalis Gilmore, 1931: M.Eocene, Zaysan Basin, Aksyir, Kalmakpay, Chaybulak, Ulíken-Ulasty, Obayla (Chkhikvadze, 1969)

Adocidae indet.: U.Cretaceous, Syrdaríya River, Baykhozha (pers.comm. of L.Nesov)

   Chelydroidea Gray, 1831

  Chelydridae Gray, 1831

Chelydropsis minax Ckhikvadze, 1971ŗ: L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin, Tayzhuzgen, Tuzkabak, Kiin-Kerish and others

Ch. poena Ckhikvadze, 1971ŗ: M.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Ashutas, Aksyir and others

Ch. kusnetzovi Ckhikvadze, 1985: U.Miocene-L.Pliocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Detskaya zheleznaya doroga (Gayduchenko & Chkhikvadze, 1985)

?Chelydropsis sp.: M.Miocene, Turgay, Kentyubek (Bendukidze & Chkhikvadze, 1976)

    Chelonioidea Baur, 1893

  Toxochelyidae Baur, 1895

Anatolemys oxensis Nessov & Khosatzky, 1977: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Nessov, 1984ŗ)

A. maximus Khosatzky et Nessov, 1977: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Nessov, 1984a; Kordikova et al., 1996), Buroynak (Nessov, 1984ŗ), Baybishe (Nesov, 1988)

  ? Xinjiangchelyidae

Yaxartemys longicauda Riabinin, 1948b: U.Jurassic, Southern Kazakhstan,

   Mikhaylovka

  Cheloniidae Gray, 1825

Tasbacka aldabergeni Nessov, 1987ŗ: U.Paleocene, Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhilga

Chelonia sp.: L.Oligocene, Turgay, Chelkar-Teniz (Chkhikvadze, 1969)

"Chelonia" aralis Khosatzky, 1945: L.Oligocene, Northern Aral Sea region, ņkespe

Glarichelys gwinneri (Wagner, 1911): U.Oligocene, Northern Ustyurt, Ashchiktaypak

   (ņslanova et al., 1979)

Cheloniidae indet.: M.Eocene, Northern Aral Sea region, Kokturnak (Khozatskiy, 1975)

  Desmatochelyidae Williston, 1894

?Desmatochelyidae indet.: U.Cretaceous,  Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach)  (Ryabinin, 1938), Alymtau (Nessov, 1984ŗ)

  Protostegidae Cope, 1889

Protostegidae indet.: U.Campanian-?L.Maastrichtian ,  Northern Kazakhstan,  Priozyornyy quarry *) (Prizemlin, 1993)

   Platysternoidea Gray, 1870

  Platysternidae Gray, 1870

Planiplastron gureevi (Nessov & Ckhikvadze, 1987):  U.Paleocene, Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhilga

P. tatarinovi  Ckhikvadze, 1971ŗ: U.Oligocene, Central Kazakhstan,  Kyzyl-Kak;  Turgay,  Myneskesuyyek;  Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Maylibay (Chkhikvadze, 1990)

Planiplastron sp.: M.Miocene, Turgay, Kentyubek (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976)

Kazachemys zaisanensis  (Ckhikvadze, 1981):  M.Miocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Dzhaman-Gara, Aksyir, Kusto-Kyzylkain; Northern Aral Sea region, Zherlepes;  Turgay, Kentyubek (Chkhikvadze, 1990)

  Lindholmemydidae Ckhikvadze, 1970

Lindholmemys gravis Nessov et Khosatzky, 1980: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Buroynak (Nessov, 1984)

Lindholmemys sp.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Nessov, 1984ŗ), Baybishe (Nesov, 1988)

     Testudinoidea Baur, 1893

  Dermatemydidae Gray, 1870

Dermatemydidae indet.: U.Campanian-?L.Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan,

   Priozyornyy quarry (Prizemlin, 1993) (The age of Kushmurun fauna (Priozyornyy

   quarry) is rather the Late Campanian - ?Early Maastrichtian (pers.commun., L.Nesov,

   1994)

  Emydidae (sensu McDowell, 1964)

?Anhuichelys sp.: U.Paleocene, Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhilga (Nesov & Chkhikvadze,

   1987)

?Pseudochrysemys sp.: U.Paleocene, Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhilga (Nesov &

   Chkhikvadze, 1987)

Echmatemys chingaliensis Kusnetzov & Ckhikvadze, 1974: M.Eocene, Southern Balkhash Lake region, Chinzhaly; Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay, Ulíken-Ulasty

E. orlovi Ckhikvadze, 1970b: U.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Aksyir, Kalmakpay, Chaybulak, Konur-Kura and others

E. zaisanensis Ckhikvadze, 1970b: U.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Mogila Sultan, Aksyir, Kalmakpay and others

E. borisovi Ckhikvadze, 1990: L.Oligocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Aksyir

Grayemys amoena Ckhikvadze, 1973: M.Eocene, Southern Balkhash Lake region, Chinzhaly; Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, localities of Obayla fauna

G. minutissima Ckhikvadze, 1990: M.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin,

   Aksyir

G. gigantea Ckhikvadze, 1990: M.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Bulkair

Zaisanemys longicervicalis Ckhikvadze, 1990: U.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Mogila Sultan

Z. gilmorei Ckhikvadze, 1990: L.Oligocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Aksyir

Z. tolstikovae Ckhikvadze, 1990: L.Oligocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin,

   Tuzkabak

Z. index (Ckhikvadze, 1971ŗ): L.Oligocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Kiin-Kerish, Kusto-Kyzylkain, Tayzhuzgen

Geomyda sp.: L.Oligocene, Turgay, Chelkar-Teniz; U.Oligocene, Central Kazakhstan, Kyzyl-Kak (Kuznetsov, 1978)

Melanochelys longilabiata Ckhikvadze, 1973: L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin, Tuzkabak, Kiin-Kerish and others

M. kazachstanica (Khosatzky, 1947): L.Miocene, Betpakdala, Askazansor

Melanochelys sp.:  L.Miocene, Turgay, Kushuk (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976); Northern Aral Sea region, Sayaken;  Eastern Kazakhstan, Ayaguz; M.Miocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Kalkaman (Chkhikvadze, 1989)

Chrysemys lavrovi Kusnetzov & Ckhikvadze, 1977: L.Oligocene, Turgay, Atambaschink, Dzhanay-Choku

Chrysemys cf. lavrovi Kusnetzov & Ckhikvadze, 1977: U.Oligocene, Western Betpakdala, Baktykaryn (Kordikova et al., 1998)

Ch. jegalloi  (Ckhikvadze, 1973):  L.Miocene, Turgay, Akkemer (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976); Zaysan Basin, Dzhaman-Gara, Aksyir, Ashutas

Chrysemys cf. jegalloi (Ckhikvadze, 1973):  M.Miocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Kalkaman  (Tleuberdina et al., 1993)

Chrysemys sp.: M.Miocene, Turgay, Kentyubek  (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976)

Ocadia turgaica Kusnetzov & Ckhikvadze, 1977: L.Oligocene, Turgay, Atambaschink, Dzhanay-Choku, Myneskesuyyek; U.Oligocene, Central Kazakhstan, Kyzyl-Kak

Ocadia cf. turgaica Kusnetzov & Ckhikvadze, 1977: U.Oligocene, Western Betpakdala, Baktykaryn (Kordikova et al., 1998)

O. iliensis (Khosatzky & Kusnetzov,1971):  L.Miocene, South-Eastern Kazakhstan, Ili Basin, Aktau; Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Aksyir, Ashutas  (Chkhivadze, 1989)

Ocadia cf. iliensis (Khosatzky & Kusnetzov, 1971): M.Miocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Kalkaman  (Tleuberdina et al., 1993)

? Ocadia sp.: M.Miocene, Turgay, Kentyubek (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976)

Emydoidea tasbaka Ckhikvadze,1989: M.Miocene, Turgay, Kentyubek

Emydidae indet.:  M.Miocene, Western Kazakhstan, Mynsualmas (Bendukidze, Chkhikvasze, 1976); Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Kalkaman, Karashigar (in Tleuberdina, 1988);  U.Miocene,  Kungey Alatau, Saty (Kuznetsov, 1978); M.Pliocene, Tekess Basin, Esekartkan (in Tleuberdina, 1988)

Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) - European pond turtle:  recent, Kazakhstan, basins of Ural River, Irgyz and Turgay Rivers and Tengiz Lake; Southern and Central Europe; Asia Anterior; North-Western Africa

  Testudinidae Gray, 1822

Hadrianus obailiensis Ckhikvadze, 1970b: M.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay, Obayla, Ulíken-Ulasty, Aksyir, Chaybulak and others

Hadrianus sp.: U.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Aksyir, Kalmakpay, Konur-Kura, Mogila Sultan  (Kuznetsov, 1978)

Ergilemys saikanensis Ckhikvadze, 1972: L.Oligocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Aksyir, Kiin-Kerish, Tayzhuzgen

Hesperotestudo paraskivi (Kusnetzov, 1972): L.Miocene, Northern Aral Sea region, Kyzylbulak

Protestudo alba Ckhikvadze, 1971b: L.Miocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Ashutas

P. lavrovi Ckhikvadze, 1989: L.Miocene, Northern Aral Sea region, Zherlepes

P. turgaica (Riabinin, 1926): L.Miocene, Turgay, Kushuk

P. darewskii Ckhikvadze, 1971b: M.Miocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin,

   Sarybulak

P. tekessa  (Khosatzky  et Kusnetzov,  1974):  M.Miocene,  Tekess Basin,  Basulytau

P. kegenica (Khosatzky, 1955):  M.-U.Miocene, South-Eastern Kazakhstan, Kegení, Karkara  (Kuznetsov, 1978)

P. illiberalis Ckhikvadze, 1971b: U.Miocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin,

   Kalmakpay

P. irgizica (Kusnetzov, 1982b): M.Pliocene, Central Kazakhstan, Shuyldak

P. karabastusica Kusnetzov, 1982a: M.Pliocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region,

   Karabastuz

Protestudo sp.:  L.Miocene, Turgay, Akkemer; U.Miocene, Sarysay (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976)

ďTestudoĒ aralensis Khozatzky, 1945 (nom.nud.): U.Oligocene, Northern Aral Sea region, Akespe

ďTestudoĒ turmae Kusnetzov, 1958: M.Miocene, Central Kazakhstan, Turme

Agrionemys sp.:  U.Pliocene, Northern Kazakhstan, Selim-Dzhevar (Kuznetsov, 1978)

Agrionemys horsfieldi (Gray, 1844) - steppe tortoise:  recent, Southern Kazakhstan, range from Caspian Sea region to Alakolí Lake;  China, Western Xinjiang;  Central and Middle Asia;  Northern and Eastern Iran; Afghanistan;  North-Western India;  Northern Pakistan

Testudinidae indet.: U.Oligocene, Western Betpakdala, Baktykaryn River sites (Ba1,3,4)

 

        S y n a p s i d a  Cope, 1878

Pelycosauria Cope, 1878

Pelycosauria indet.: L.Permian, Central Kazakhstan, Ters-Akkan (Efremov,1951)

 

A r c h o s a u r i a  Owen, 1860

Dinosauria Owen, 1841

Dinosauria indet.:  L.Cretaceous, Hauterivian?-Barremian, Western Kazakhstan, Emba River, Karalikol-Mollo (Nesov, 1995); Aptian - Western Kazakhstan, left bank of Emba River, Teleumbet; between Emba, Sagiz and Uil Rivers, Shubar-Zhilan (Vakhrameyev, 1952);  Albian -Southern Kazakhstan, Tashkent Chuli region, Chanak, Taskotan, Dzhamsugum (Beleníkiy, 1961); U.Cretaceous - North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Khorkhut (Yuríyev, 1954), Tyuratam (Nesov, 1995); Southern Kazakhstan, Tuzkulí, Uzunkuduk (Efremov, 1944), Dzhilga (Prinada, 1925), Chingelídy (Ivanov, 1926), Alymtau (Prinada, 1927), Aygyr-Uch-Kan Range, Tyulíkesu  (Ryabinin, 1939), Chimkent  (Bazhanov, 1961); South-Eastern Kazakhstan,  Chulak (Kirikov, 1927), Karoy (Yakovlev, 1929), Antonovka (data of  E.Kordikova and V.Chkhikvadze,  1988); Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Tayzhuzgen;  Northern Kazakhstan, Ayat River (Bazhanov, 1947); L.Turonian, Southern Kazakhstan, Tashkent Chuli region, Mansurata (Beleníkiy, 1961); U.Turonian-Santonian, Betpakdala, Chu River Valley: Tassuyekkoba, Malyy Karakolí  (Nikiforova, 1960); Santonian, Southern Kazakhstan, Tashkent Chuli region, Algabas, Bogonale, Darbaza, Kazgurt (Nesov, 1995), Kyrkkuduk (Ryabinin, 1938)

     Saurischia Seeley, 1888

    Theropoda Marsh, 1881

Theropoda indet.: (Embasaurus minax Riabinin, 1931) - L.Cretaceous, Western Kazakhstan, Emba  River, Koy-Kara (Ryabinin, 1949), Southern Kazakhstan, Tashkent Chuli region, Dovletsay (Ryabinin, 1939); L.Santonian, Southern Kazakhstan, Tashkent Chuli region, Syuk-Syuk (Nesov, 1995)

   Carnosauria Huene, 1920

Carnosauria indet.: U.Cretaceous, Ili Basin, Malyye Kalkany; Southern Betpakdala, Bozaby (Efremov, 1944); Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhettytyube (Prinada, 1925; Nesov, 1995); L.Turonian, U.Turonian-Coniacean, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili (Nesov, 1995)

ďCoeluroideaĒ indet.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Baybishe (Nesov,

   1988)

  Tyrannosauridae Osborn, 1905

?Alectrosaurus sp.: L.Turonian, U.Turonian-Coniacean, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili (Nesov, 1995); L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) *) (Ryabinin , 1938), Kazgurt (Prizemlin,  1990);  North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Rozhdestvenskiy, 1964ŗ)

Macroolithus rugustus: L.Campanian-Maastrichtian, Zaysan Basin, left bank of Tayzhuzgen River (Lucas et al., 1995)

Tyrannosauridae indet.: Turonian-?Coniacian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili (Kordikova et al., 1996); L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Ryabinin, 1938); North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Baybishe (Nesov, 1988); Southern Buroynak (Nesov, 1995; Kordikova et al., 1996)

  Coeluridae Marsh, 1881

Coeluroides ? sp.:  L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Ryabinin, 1938), Kazgurt (Prizemlin, 1990)

CÓeluridae indet.: L.Cretaceous, Dzhungarian Alatau, Baytuma (Kordikova et al.,1993); L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Ryabinin, 1938)

  Dromaeosauridae Matthew et Brown, 1922

Velociraptor cf. mongoliensis Osborn, 1924: L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Ryabinin, 1938), Kazgurt (Prizemlin, 1990)

Dromaeosauridae indet.: Turonian-?Coniacian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili; L.Santonian, Shakh-Shakh (Rozhdestvenskiy, 1964ŗ; Suslov, 1982; Kordikova et al., 1996)

   Ornithomimosauria Barsbold, 1976

  Ornithomimidae Marsh, 1890

Ornithomimus cf. asiaticus:  L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Ryabinin, 1938), Kazgurt (Prizemlin, 1990)

Ornithomimidae indet.: U.Cretaceous, Southern Kazakhstan, Tashkent Chuli region, Dovletsay (Ryabinin, 1939); Turonian-?Coniacian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili (Kordikova et al., 1996); L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach)  (Ryabinin, 1938);  North-Eastern Aral Sea region,  Shakh-Shakh  (Rozhdestvenskiy,  1964ŗ);  U.Cretaceous, Ili Basin, Malyye Kalkany, Karoy, Karacheku (Efremov, 1944)

   Oviraptorosauria Barsbold, 1976

  Oviraptoridae Barsbold, 1976

?Oviraptor sp.:  L.Santonian,  Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Ryabinin, 1938), Kazgurt (Prizemlin, 1990)

  Caenognathidae

Caenognathidae indet.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region,  Shakh-Shakh (Baybolat) (Nesov, Khisarova, 1988; Currie et al., 1993)

  Deinodontidae Cope, 1886

Deinodontidae indet.: U.Turonian-Santonian or ?Coniacean-Santonian, Eastern Betpakdala, Malyy Karatau Range, Koturbulak (Nikiforova, 1960); L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Rozhdestvenskiy, 1964ŗ);  U.Cretaceous,  Ili Basin, Malyye Kalkany, Karacheku (Efremov, 1944)

   Ceratosauria Marsh, 1884

  Ceratosauridae Marsh, 1884

Ceratosauridae indet.*): L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Ryabinin, 1938); U.Cretaceous, Ili Basin, Malyye Kalkany (Efremov, 1944) (*) material has to be revised)

    Sauropodomorpha Huene, 1932

   Sauropoda Marsh, 1878

  Titanosauridae Lydekker, 1885

ņntarctosaurus jaxarticus nom. nud.*): L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Ryabinin , 1938), Kazgurt (Prizemlin, 1990) (*) material has to be revised)

Titanosauridae indet.: U.Cretaceous, Ili Basin, Malyye Kalkany, Karacheku; Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Efremov, 1944)

Sauropoda indet.: L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Syuk-Syuk (Rozhdestvenskiy, Khozatskiy, 1965)

     Ornithischia Seeley, 1888

Ornithischia indet.: U.Cretaceous, Southern Kazakhstan, Tashkent Chuli region, Dovletsay (Ryabinin, 1939); Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan, Ayat River (Novokhatskiy, 1954)

    Ornithopoda Marsh, 1881

   Iguanodontia Dollo, 1888

  Hadrosauridae Cope, 1869

Jaxartosaurus aralensis Riabinin, 1938: L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Ryabinin, 1938), Syuk-Syuk (Rozhdestvenskiy, 1964a), Kazgurt (Suslov, 1987)

Aralosaurus tuberiferus Rozhdestvensky, 1968: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Kordikova et al., 1996)

Arstanosaurus akkorganensis Shilin & Suslov, 1982: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Akkurgan

Gilmoreosaurus sp. cf. G. arkhangelskyi Nessov & Kaznyshkina, 1995: L.Turonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili (Nesov, 1995)

Hadrosaurus sp.: ?L.Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan, Priozyornyy quarry 

   (Prizemlin, 1993)

Lophorhothon sp.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Rozhdestvenskiy, 1964ŗ)

cf. Lophorhothon sp.:  L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Baybishe (Nesov,

   1985b)

Lambeosaurinae indet.: L.Santonian, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Efremov, 1944), Syuk-Syuk (Rozhdestvenskiy, Khozatskiy, 1965)

Hadrosauridae indet.: U.Cretaceous, South-Eastern Kazakhstan:  Malyye Kalkany, Karoy, Karacheku; Southern Betpakdala,  Bozaby;  Karatau Range,  Tuzkulí (Efremov, 1944); Northern Kazakhstan, Ayat River (Bazhanov, 1947); ?Senomanian, Southern Kazakhstan, Tashkent Chuli region, Sary-Dzhilga (Ryabinin, 1938, 1939); L.Turonian, U.Turonian-Coniacean, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili (Nesov, 1995; Kordikova et al., 1996); Coniacean, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Kokuyuk (Voskoboynikov, 1953); U.Turonian-Santonian or ?Coniacean-Santonian, Eastern Betpakdala, Malyy Karatau Range, Koturbulak (Nikiforova, 1960); L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Buroynak (Nesov, 1995); Santonian-L.Campanian, Southern Kazakhstan, Kokkiya (Nesov, 1995)

  Elongatoolithidae

Elongatoolithus sp.: L.Campanian-?Maastrichtian, Zaysan Basin, left bank of Tayzhuzgen River (Nesov, 1995)

   Stegosauria Marsh, 1877

  Stegosauridae Marsh, 1880

Stegosauridae indet.:*) U.Cretaceous, Ili Basin, Malyye Kalkany, Karacheku (Efremov,

   1944)

   Ankylosauria Osborn, 1923

Ankylosauria indet.: L.Santonian, Northern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Rozhdestvenskiy, 1964ŗ)

Ankylosauridae indet.: U.Turonian-Santonian or ?Coniacean-Santonian, Eastern Betpakdala, Malyy Karatau Range, Koturbulak (Nikiforova, 1960); L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region,   Shakh-Shakh (Rozhdestvenskiy, Khozatskiy, 1967; Prizemlin, 1990; Kordikova et al., 1996)

?Ankylosauridae indet.: U.Cretaceous,  Tashkent Chuli region, Sharybkhana (Ryabinin, 1939); Santonian-L.Campanian, Eastern Aral Sea region, Baykhozha (Khozatskiy, 1957)

  Nodosauridae Marsh, 1890

Nodosauridae indet.:*)  L.Santonian,  Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Ryabinin, 1939)

  Acanthopholidae Nopcsa, 1923

Acanthopholidae indet.:*) U.Cretaceous,  Ili Basin,  Malyye Kalkany,  Karacheku (Efremov, 1944)

   Ceratopsia Marsh, 1890

Ceratopsia s.l.: U.Cretaceous, Tashkent Chuli region, Chingelídy (=Sary-Agach) (Efremov, 1944)

  Ceratopsidae Marsh, 1890

cf. Triceratops sp.: U.Cretaceous, Ili Basin, Malyye Kalkany (Efremov, 1944)

Ceratopsidae indet.: U.Cretaceous, Ili Basin, Malyye Kalkany (Efremov, 1944)

  

Crocodilia Gmelin, 1788

Crocodilia indet.:  Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan, Ayat River (Novokhatskiy,

    1954); North-Eastern Aral Sea region,  Balginbay (Efimov, 1988b); Tashkent Chuli

    region,  Akdzhar (Romanovskiy, 1878; cit. in Efimov, 1988b)

    Mesosuchia Huxley, 1875

  Goniopholididae Cope, 1875

Turanosuchus aralensis Efimov, 1988: Turonian-?Coniacian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili; L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Efimov, 1988; Kordikova et al., 1996)

cf. Kansajsuchus sp.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Baybishe (Nesov,

   1988)

  Atoposauridae Gervais, 1871

Karatausuchus sharovi Efimov, 1976: U.Jurassic, Southern Kazakhstan, Mikhaylovka

  Shamosuchidae Efimov, 1983

Shamosuchus borealis (Efimov, 1975):  Turonian-?Coniacian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili (=Kankazgan) (Nesov, 1984ŗ)

S. extensus:  L.Santonian,  North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Baybishe, Shakh-Shakh (Nesov, 1984ŗ)

Shamosuchus sp.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Efimov,

   1988)

Shamosuchidae (=Paralligatoridae) indet.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh

    Eusuchia Huxley, 1875

  Alligatoridae Gray, 1844

Sajkanosuchus ckhikvadzoi Efimov, 1984: M.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Obayla

Allognathosuchus isolatus (Efimov, 1984): M.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay and others

Diplocynodon kintyktshensis Efimov, 1988: L.Miocene, Northern Aral Sea region,

   Kintykche

Alligatoridae indet.:  M.Eocene-L.Oligocene,  L.-M.Miocene, Dzhungarian Alatau, Aktau (Kuznetsov, 1961; Kordikova, 1993); L.Oligocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Lyuboví (E.Kordikovaís determination)

  Pristichampsidae Kuhn, 1968

Pristichampsus birjukovi Efimov, 1988: M.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay

P. kuznetzovi Efimov, 1988: M.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay

  Crocodylidae Cuvier, 1807

Tadzhikosuchus sp.: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh

   (Efimov, 1988)

Asiatosuchus sp.: M.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay and others (Efimov, 1988)

Crocodylidae indet.: U.Campanian-?L.Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan, Priozyornyy quarry (Prizemlin, 1993)

  Gavialidae Adams, 1854

Dollosuchus zajsanicus (Efimov, 1982): M.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay and others

Tomistoma borisovi Efimov, 1988:  U.Eocene-L.Oligocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Konur-Kura, Akkezení

Tomistoma sp.: L.Oligocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Bulkair, Kusto-Kyzylkain, Kiin-Kerish (Efimov, 1988)

Gavialidae indet.:  U.Eocene, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay, Aksyir,  Konur-Kura,  Manrak Range,  Mogila Sultan,  Kenderlykskaya mulída, Bulkair, Kusto-Kyzylkain, Tuzkabak  and others (Efimov, 1988)

  

           Pterosauria Caup, 1834

   Rhamphorhynchoidea Pleininger, 1901

  Anurognathidae Kuhn, 1937

Batrachognathus volans Riabinin, 1948a: U.Jurassic, Southern Kazakhstan,

   Mikhaylovka

Sordes pilosus Sharov, 1971: U.Jurassic, Southern Kazakhstan, Mikhaylovka

Rhamphorhynchoidea indet.: U.Jurassic,  Western Kazakhstan,  Shubarkuduk (Khozatskiy, 1972)

Pterosauria indet.:  L.Santonian,  North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-ShakhII (Nesov, 1984b)

  

                  S y n a p t o s a u r i a  Williston, 1925

   Plesiosauroidea  Cope, 1869

  Plesiosauridae Cope, 1869

Polycotylus aff. orientalis Bogolubov, 1912: ?L.Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan, Priozyornyy quarry (Prizemlin, 1993)

  Elasmosauridae Cope, 1869

Elasmosaurus sp.: U.Campanian-?L.Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan, Priozyornyy quarry  (Prizemlin, 1993); Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan, Ayat River (Novokhatskiy, 1954)

   Pliosauroidea Welles, 1943

  Pliosauridae Seeley, 1874

Pliosaurus cf. macromerus Phillips, 189?: U.Jurassic (Kimmeridgian-Tothonian),

   Western Kazakhstan, Shchuchkin Village (Bazhanov, 1958; Malakhov, 1997)

 

                                                   I c h t h y o p t e r y g i a  Cope, 1885

Ichthyosauroidei indet.: U.Jurassic, Western Kazakhstan, Shchuchkin Village 

   (Bazhanov, 1958); Cretaceous, Western Kazakhstan, Inder Lake (Nesov et al., 1988)

  

                                                    L e p i d o s a u r i a  Haeckel, 1868

     Prolacertilia v.Huene, 1940

  Protorosauridae Huxley, 1871

Protorosauridae indet.:  L.Permian, Central Kazakhstan,  Ters-Akkan (Efremov, 1951)

     Choristodera Cope, 1876

  Champsosauridae Cope, 1884

Simoedosaurus sp.: U.Paleocene, Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhilga (L.Nesov,

   pers.comm., 1994)

 Lacertilia Wagler, 1830

Lacertilia indet.:  L.Santonian, Northern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Nesov,  Khisarova, 1988); M.Eocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

    Anguimorpha Furbringer, 1900

  Mosasauridae Conybeare, 1812

Dollosaurus lutugini Yakovlev, 1901: ?L.Maastrichtian,  Northern Kazakhstan, Priozyornyy quarry  (Prizemlin, 1988, 1993)

Mosasaurus camperi Meyer: ?L.Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan, Priozyornyy quarry (Prizemlin, 1988, 1993)

Mosasauridae indet.:  U.Maastrichtian, Western Kazakhstan, Aktyubinskís environs (Yakovlev, 1905); Maastrichtian, Northern Kazakhstan,  Ayat River (Novokhatskiy, 1954)

  Anguidae Gray, 1825

Placosaurus sp.: L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze et al., 1983)

Glyptosaurinae indet.: L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Anguis sp.:  L.Miocene,  Zaysan Basin, Ashutas  (Zmey Gorynych) (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

?Ophisaurus sp.  or  ?Anguis sp.:  U.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay

   (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Pseudopus apodus (Pallas, 1775) - glass-lizard: recent, Kazakhstan,Western Tien-Shan; Central Asia; Balkan Peninsula; Southern Crimea; Minor Asia; Syria; Israel; Iraq; Iran; Caucasus

  Varanidae Gray, 1827

Saniwa sp.: L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Varanus sp.: L.Miocene, Western Kazakhstan, Mynsualmas (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976); U.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Varanus griseus (Daudin, 1803) - desert monitor: recent, Southern Kyzylkumy, Central Asia; South-Western Asia; Pakistan; North Africa

Varanidae indet.: ?Coniacean, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Tyulíkili (Kordikova et al., 1997); L.Miocene, Western Kazakhstan, Mynsualmas (Bendukidze, Chkhikvadze, 1976)

    Iguania Cuvier, 1807

  Iguanidae Gray, 1827

Iguania sp.: M.Eocene-L.Oligocene, Dzhungarian Alatau, Aktau (Bazhanov, 1959)

  Agamidae Gray, 1827

Tinosaurus sp.: M.Eocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Agamidae indet.:  M.Eocene, Southern Balkhash Lake region, Chinzhaly  (Chkhikvadze et al., 1983); L.Oligocene, M.Miocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985)  

Trapelus sanguinolentus (Pallas, 1814) - steppe agama: recent, southern part of Kazakhstan; Central Asia; China, Western Xinjiang; Northern Afghanistan; Northern and North-Eastern Iran; Eastern Ciscaucasia

Phrynocephalus guttatus (Gmelin, 1789) - spotted toad agama: recent, Kazakhstan, Northern Caspian Sea region, sands along Irgiz River, Kzyl-Orda area, Southern Balkhash Lake region, Alakolí Basin;  Central Asia;  China, Western Xinjiang; Ciscaucasia

Ph. helioscopus (Pallas, 1771) - sunwatcher: recent, Kazakhstan, excluding its northern part; Central Asia; China, Western Xinjiang; North-Western Mongolia; Northern Iran; Eastern Turkey; Transcaucasia

Ph. interscapularis Lichtenstein, 1856 - recent, Kazakhstan, Aral Sea region and Kyzylkumy;  Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan;  North-Eastern Iran; Northern Afghanistan

Ph. melanurus Eichwald, 1831 - recent, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin

Ph. mystaceus (Pallas, 1776) - toad-headed agama: recent, Southern Kazakhstan - from Northern Caspian Sea region to Alakolí Lake; Central Asia;  China, Western Xinjiang;  Northern Afghanistan;  North-Eastern and Eastern Iran;  Eastern Ciscaucasia

Ph. versicolor Strauch, 1876 - recent, Kazakhstan, Ili Basin; Russia, Tuva; China, Inner Mongolia, Western Xinjiang; Mongolia

    Gekkota Cuvier, 1807

  Gekkonidae Gray, 1825

Alsophylax pipiens (Pallas, 1813) - recent, Kazakhstan, from down stream of Volga River to Zaysan Basin and Souther; Central Asia, including Uzbekistan and north part of Turkmenistan; North-Eastern Iran; Northern Afghanistan and easter to North-Western China and Southern Mongolia

Crossobamon eversmanni (Wiegmann, 1834) - recent, sands of Southern Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Turkmenistan; North-Western Tadzhikistan; North-Western Afghanistan; Northern Iran

Cyrtodactylus caspius (Eichwald, 1831) - recent, Kazakhstan, eastern coast of Caspian Sea and northern coast of Aral Sea; Central Asia, excluding Kyrgyzstan, eastern half  of Caucasus; Northern  and Eastern Iran; North-Western Afghanistan

C. russowi (Strauch, 1887) - recent, Southern Kazakhstan - from Northern Caspian Sea region to Alakolí Lake; Central Asia;  China,  Northern Xinjiang;  Eastern Ciscaucasia; North-Eastern and Eastern Iran

Teratoscincus scincus (Schlegel, 1858) - Turkestan plate-tailed gecko: recent, deserts of southern part of Kazakhstan and Central Asia, excluding Kyrgyzstan; China, southern part of Gobi Desert; Northern Afghanistan; Western Pakistan; Central and Eastern Iran

    Scincomorpha Camp, 1923

  Slavoiidae Alifanov, 1993

Slavoia cf. darevski Sulimov, 1984: L.Santonian, North-Eastern Aral Sea region, Shakh-Shakh (Kordikova et al., 1997)

  Scincidae Gray, 1825

Ablepharus deserti Strauch, 1868 - desert lidless skink: recent, Southern Kazakhstan, from Kyzylkumy to Southern Balkhash Lake region; Kyrgyzstan; northern part of Tadzhikistan; Uzbekistan; Eastern Turkmenistan

Asymblepharus alaicus  (Elpatjewsky, 1901)  - recent, South-Eastern Kazakhstan, Transili and Talas Alatau; Kyrgyzstan; North-Eastern Uzbekistan; Tadzhikistan

  Lacertidae Fitzinger, 1826

Lacertidae indet.: M.Miocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Eremias sp.:  U.Miocene-L.Pliocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Gusinyy perelyot  (Zerova, Chkhikvadze, 1984)

Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773) - steppe runner:  recent, Kazakhstan, souther of Uralísk - Akmola - Zaysan Basin; from North-Eastern Romania on the west to South-Western Mongolia on the east, from Northern Iran on the south to 53įN in Russia on the north

E. grammica  (Lichtenstein,  1823) - reticulate racerunner:  recent, Southern Kazakhstan, from Northern Aral Sea to Alakolí Basin;  China, Western Xinjiang;  Central Asia,  excluding Kyrgyzstan; North-Eastern Iran; Northern Afghanistan

E. intermedia (Strauch, 1876) - medial racerunner: recent, Southern Kazakhstan, from Caspian Sea region to Alakolí Basin; Uzbekistan;Southwest of Turkmenistan

E. lineolata (Nikolsky, 1896) - striped racerunner: recent, Kazakhstan, Southern Balkhash Lake region and Alakolí Basin, Southern  Kyzylkumy; Uzbekistan;  Turkmenistan; South-Western Tadzhikistan; Western Afghanistan; Eastern Iran

E. multiocellata Gunther,  1872 - multiocellated racerunner: recent,  Kazakhstan, Kungey and Terskey Alatau,  Zaysan Basin, Kazakhstan; Eastern Kyrgyzstan;  Russia, Tuva and norther to Tannu-Opa Range; Northern  China; Mongolia

E. nikolskii Bedrriaga,  1905 - Kyrghyz  racerunner:  recent, Kazakhstan, Terskey Alatau; Kyrgyzstan; Uzbekistan; Tadzhikistan

E. scripta (Strauch,  1867) - sand racerunner: recent, Southern Kazakhstan, from Caspian Sea region to Alakolí Basin;  the most part of Central Asia; Eastern Iran; Western Afghanistan; Northern Pakistan

E. velox (Pallas,  1771) - rapid fringetoed lizard: recent, Southern Kazakhstan, from Caspian Sea region to Alakolí Basin; Central Asia, excluding of Kyrgyzstan; Northern China;  Northern Afghanistan; Northern and  North-Eastern  Iran; Eastern Transcaucasia;  Eastern Ciscaucasia;  Nizhneye Povolzhíye

E. vermiculata Blanford, 1875 - variegated racerunner: recent, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin; North-Western China; Mongolia

Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758 - sand lizard: recent, northern part of Kazakhstan, Dzhungarian and Kungey Alatau; Northern and Central Europe; Russia, easter to Northern Baikal Lake region and Southern Transbaikalia; China, Western Xinjiang; North-Western Mongolia; souther to Turkey and Kyrgyzstan

L. vivipara Jacquin, 1787 - viviparous lizard: recent, northern and eastern parts of Kazakhstan; North-Western and North-Eastern China; to the south of 73į N - northern half of Eurasia including  the British Isles, Siberia, Sakhalin Island, North-Western and North-Eastern China,  Northern Mongolia and Japan

     Serpentes L., 1758

   Alethinophidia Nopcsa, 1923

  Nigerophiidae Rage, 1975

Nigerophiidae indet.: U.Paleocene, Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhilga (Averianov, 1997)

Nessovophis zhylga Averianov, 1997: U.Paleocene, Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhilga 1

Palaeophis nessovi Averianov, 1997: U.Eocene (Priabonian), Northern Kazakhstan,

   Kachar

Palaeophis sp. Averianov, 1997: M.Eocene (Bartonian), Mangyshlak Peninsula, Ussak

  Vialovophiidae Nessov, 1984

Vialovophis zhylan Nessov, 1983: U.Paleocene, Tashkent Chuli region, Dzhilga 1a

  Boidae Gray, 1825

cf.Calamagras sp.: M.Eocene, L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Boidae indet.:  U.Eocene, Zaysan Basin (Zerova, Chkhikvadze, 1984)

Boinae indet.: L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Erycinae indet.:  L.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze,  1985);  Miocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze  et al., 1983)

Bransateryx sp.: U.Oligocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Eryx sp.:  L., M.Miocene, U.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Kalmakpay (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Eryx miliaris (Pallas, 1773) - sand boa: recent, south-western parts of Kazakhstan, Kyzylkumy; Central Asia, excluding Kyrgyzstan and Tadzhikistan; North-Western China; Afghanistan; Northern Iran; Eastern Ciscaucasia

E. tataricus (Lichtenstein, 1823) - Tatary sand boa: recent, Southern Kazakhstan, from Karakumy of Aral Sea region to Alakolí and Zaysan Basins;  Central Asia;  Northern Iran; Afghanistan; Pakistan; North-Western India;  North-Western China; Southern Mongolia

  Colubridae Oppel, 1811

Colubridae indet.: Miocene, ?Pliocene, Zaysan Basin (Chkhikvadze  et al., 1983)

Elaphe cf. dione (Pallas, 1773): M.Miocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Kalkaman (Zerova, Chkhikvadze, 1984)

Elaphe dione (Pallas, 1773) - Pallasí coluber: recent, from Western Kazakhstan to Altai; Transcaucasia; Northern Iran; Central Asia;  Northern China; Korea; Southern Siberia;  Maritime Territory;  Far East

E. quattuorlineata (Lacepede, 1789) - four-lined snake:  recent, Kazakhstan, between Caspian and Aral Seas; Southern Europe;  Minor Asia; Northern Iraq; North-Western Iran; Northern Caucasus; Transcaucasia;  Russia, Nizhneye Povolzhíye

Coluber cf. ravergieri Menetries, 1832: U.Miocene-L.Pliocene, Pavlodar Irtysh River region, Gusinyy perelyot (Zerova, Chkhikvadze, 1984)

C. ravergieri Menetries, 1832 - mountain racer: recent, Southern Kazakhstan, from Caspian and Aral Seas to Alakolí Basin;  from Lower Egypt, Sinai and Minor Asia through Israel, Syria, Iraq, Iran,  Caucasus and Central Asia and easter to Afghanistan,  Pakistan, North-Western India, Western China and Western Mongolia; Cyprus, Rhodes, Santus Islands

C. caspius Gmelin, 1789 - Caspian racer: recent, Kazakhstan, south-western part of Volga and Ural sands;  Nizhneye Povolzhíye; South-Western Turkmenistan; North-Eastern Iran; Northern Iraq; Caucasus; Crimea; Southern Europe

C. karelini Brandt, 1838 - spotted desert racer: recent, Kazakhstan, between Caspian and Aral Seas, in Kyzylkumy and Moyunkumy; Central Asia; eastern part of Iran; Afghanistan; Pakistan; North-Western India

C. rhodorhachis (Jan, 1865) - cliff racer:  recent,  Kazakhstan, Northern Aral Sea region,  Karatau,  Borolday; Western Kyrgyzstan; Southern Uzbekistan; Southern Turkmenistan; Northern and South-Western Tadzhikistan; Pakistan, Baluchistan; Iran; Iraq; Arabian Peninsula; Somali Peninsula; Lower Egypt

C. spinalis (Peters, 1866) - slender racer: recent, Eastern Kazakhstan, Zaysan Basin; northern half of China;  Mongolia;  Korea; ?Far East; ?Afghanistan

Coronella austriaca Laurenti, 1768 - smooth snake: recent, Western Kazakhstan; Western Siberia; almost all Europe;  northern half of Minor Asia;  Caucasus; Northern Iran

Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758) - grass snake: recent, Western, Eastern and South-Eastern (Southern Balkhash Lake region and Alakolí Basin) Kazakhstan; almost all Europe; from North-Western Africa and Western Asia to Western China and North-Western Mongolia, south of Eastern Siberia

N. tesselata (Laurenti, 1768) - diced snake:  recent,  Kazakhstan, souther of Uralísk - Dzhezkazgan - Alakolí Basin; Central and Southern Europe;  North-Eastern Africa; Asia Anterior, Minor and Central Asia; Afghanistan; North-Western Pakistan; ?North-Western India; Western China

Psammophis lineolatus (Brandt, 1838) - steppe ribbon snake: recent, Southern Kazakhstan, from Caspian Sea, Turgay to Zaysan Basin; Central Asia; North-Western China; Southern Mongolia; Pakistan; Afghanistan; Iran; south of Eastern Transcaucasia

Spalerosophis diadema (Schlegel, 1837) - diadem snake: recent, Kazakhstan, Kyzylkumy, Mangyshlak; the most part of Central Asia; Northern India; Pakistan; Afghanistan; Iran; Iraq; Syria; Arabia; North Africa

  Crotalidae Gray, 1825

Agkistrodon halys (Pallas, 1776) - Halys viper: recent, southern half of Kazakhstan; from Zavolzhíye and South-Eastern Azerbaijan through Central Asia, Southern Siberia to Pacific Ocean coast; Northern Iran; China; Mongolia; Korea; Eastern Japan

    Scolecophidia Dumeril & Birbon, 1844

  Typhlopidae Merrem, 1820

Typhlops vermicularis Merrem, 1820 - worm snake: recent, Kazakhstan, Mangyshlak; Central Asia, excluding Kyrgyzstan and the most part of Turkmenistan; Afghanistan; Iran;  Syria;  Minor Asia; Caucasus;  Balkan Peninsula

  Viperidae Bonaparte, 1840

Viperidae indet.: L.Miocene, Zaysan Basin, Ashutas (Zmey Gorynych) (Chkhikvadze,

   1985)

Pelias sp.:  Zaysan Basin - L.Miocene, Ashutas  (Zmey Gorynych), M.Miocene

   (Chkhikvadze, 1985)

Vipera berus (Linnaeus, 1758) - common northern viper: recent, north of Kazakhstan, Altai; Northern and Central Europe; Northern and Central Asia to Sakhalin Peninsula

V. ursini (Bonaparte, 1835) - Orsiniís viper: recent,  all Kazakhstan, excluding of desert zone - Ustyurt, Kyzylkumy, Betpakdala, Moyunkumy;  Central Asia,  excluding Tadzhikistan and Turkmenistan

 

Dinamics of familial and species  diversity in herpetofaunas of Kazakhstan

  

   

Fig. 2. Dinamics of the diversity of families of amphibians and reptiles of Kazakhstan. C/3 - Late Carboniferous, P/1 - Early Permian, P/2 - Late Permian, T - Triassic, J/1-2 - Early-Middle Jurassic, J/3 - Late Jurassic, K/1  - Early Cretaceous,  K/2 - Late Cretaceous,   /2stc - Senomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, K/2sc - Santonian, Campanian, K/2m - Maastrichtian, P/1 - Paleocene, P/2  - Eocene,  P/3 - Oligocene,  N/1 - Miocene,  N/2 - Pliocene,  Q - Pleistocene, Hol - Holocene, R - present time.

   

  

 

 Fig. 3. Dinamics of the diversity of species of amphibians and reptiles of Kazakhstan.

HISTORY  OF  FORMATION  OF HERPETOFAUNA  OF KAZAKHSTAN

  

The herpetofauna  of  Kazakhstan  appears  to  have been  formed  in  the end of the Paleogene and the beginning of the Neogene. Its kernel consists   of  species  of  genera  Bufo, Rana, Agrionemys, Teratoscincus, Cyrtodactylus, Alsophylax,  Trapelus, Phrynocephalus, Eremias, Eryx, Natrix, Coluber, Elaphe, Psammophis, Vipera and some others, whose ranges cover more than 40%  of the surface of Kazakhstan (Kordikova, 1995b). It is very heterogeneous. Species of genera Phrynocephalus and Eremias dominate herpetofauna of Kazakhstan. Taking into account  the  distribution  of  fossil  and  recent  species  of amphibians and reptiles  of  the  region,  as  well  as  their  landscape and ecological restrictedness, we  suppose that the herpetofauna of Kazakhstan contains the following elements (fig.4):

    

 

Fig. 4. Ratio of different elements in modern herpetofauna of Kazakhstan. ES - European and         Siberian elements, EM - European and Mediterranean, T - Turanean, MA - Middle Asian, Tsh - endemics of Tien-Shan and Pamiro-Alai, AA - Asian Anterior, CA - Central Asian, C - cosmopolits. 

  

1.  European and Siberian - Salamandrella keyserlingi, Triturus  vulgaris,  Bombina  bombina,  Pelobates  fuscus, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lacerta argilis, L. vivipara, Arkistrodon halys, Vipera berus and Siberian  - Rana asiatica;

 

2.  European and Mediterranean - Rana ridibunda, Emys orbicularis, Pseudopus apodus, Natrix natrix, N. tesselata, Coluber caspius, Elaphe  quattuorlineata,  Coronella  austriaca, Vipera ursini;

  

3. Turanian - Teratoscincus scincus, Alsophylax pipiens, Cyrtodactylus caspius, Phrynocephalus guttatus, Eremias velox, Coluber carelini;

 

4. Middle Asian - Agrionemys horsfieldi, Trapelus sanguinolentus, Grossobamon eversmanni, C. russowi, Phrynocephalus interscapularis, Ph. helioscopus, Ph. mystaceus, A. deserti, Eremias grammica, E. intermedia, E. lineolata, E. scripta, Eryx milliaris, E. tataricus, Psammophis lineolatum;

  

5. endemics of the Tian-Shan and Pamir-Alai - Ranodon  sibiricus, Bufo  danatensis, Rana asiatica, Asymblepharus alaicus, Eremias nikolskii;

  

6.  Asian Anterior - Varanus griseus, Coluber ravergieri, C. rhodorhachis,  Spalerosophis diadema and Typhlops vermicularis

  

7.  Central Asian - Phrynocephalus melanurus, Ph. versicolor, Eremias multiocellata, E. vermiculata, Coluber spinalis and species with wide ranges: Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Eremias arguta and Elaphe dione

  

Thus, in the modern fauna of Kazakhstan the Middle Asian  (26%), European and  Siberian (20%) as well as European and Mediterranean (15%) elements dominate.

 

The herpetofauna of Kazakhstan most closely resembles those of Uzbekistan,  Tadjikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan and, to a lesser extent, that of China (fig.5). The ratio of faunistic similarity provides evidence for it. 

   

 

Fig. 5. Ratio of faunistic similarity (in per cents) of extant species of amphibians and reptiles  in herpetofaunas of adjacent countries.

  

  It is estimated using the formula (Larina & Gurylyova, 1972):

  

  P =  2c     x 100%,     where   P - a ratio of faunistic similarity,

          a+b                                  c - a number of common species for comparable      

 faunas, a and b - total number of species in each fauna.

 

Main Publications

 

Kordikova, E.G. (1998): Herpetofauna in the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic of   Kazakhstan. - Vestnik KazGU, 6: 61-109.

 

Kordikova E.G., Bonis, de, L., Brunet, M. & Mavrin, A.V. (1998): New data on turtles of South-Western Betpakdala. - Abstracts of the Third Asian Herpetolog. Meeting, Almaty, 1-5 September, 1998, pp.22-23.

Kordikova, E.G., Brushko, Z.K. & Kubykin, R.A. (1998): Distribution of some fossil amphibians and reptiles and their extant geographical range. - Vestnik KazGU, 6: 35-54.

Kordikova, E.G. (1995a): Herpetofauna in the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras of Kazakhstan. - 75th Ann. Meeting of the Americ. Soc. of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Edmonton, 1995: 131.

Kordikova, E.G. (1995b): Formation of herpetofauna in Kazakhstan. - Abstracts of the Second Asian Herpetolog. Meeting. Ashgabat, pp. 33-34.

Kordikova, E.G. (1994a): Review of fossil Trionychid Localities in the Soviet  Union. - Cour.  Forsch.- Inst. Senckenberg. Frankfurt-a-M., 173: 341-358.

Kordikova, E.G. (1994b): About  systematics  of  fossil trionychids of Kazakhstan. - Selevinia, 2: 3-10.

Kordikova, E.G. (1994c): New data about fossil trionychids of Kazakhstan. - Selevinia, 4: 72.

Kordikova, E.G. (1993): Fossil trionychids of Kazakhstan . - Second Internat. Herpetol. Congress, Adelaide, pp. 142-143.

Kordikova, E.G., Prizemlin, B.V., Tleuberdina, P.A. & Chkhikvadze, V.M. (1993): Baytuma - a new locality of the Cretaceous reptiles in Dzhungarian   Alatau   [Baytuma - novoye mestonakhozhdeniye melovykh presmykayushchikhsya v Dzhungarskom Alatau]. - Izvest.  Akad. Nauk Resp. Kazakh., ser. biol., 1993, 4: 84-86. 

Kordikova, E.G. (1992a): Review of fossil trionychids of the Soviet Union [Obzor iskopayemykh tryokhkogotnykh cherepakh Sovetskogo Soyuza]. - Izv. Akad. Nauk Gruzii, ser.biol., 18, 2: 131-141.

 

Kordikova, E.G. (1992b): Preliminary data about time and prohoreses ways of fossil   trionychids in Kazakhstan [Predvaritel'nyye dannyye o vremeni i putyakh  prokhorezov iskopaemykh tryokhkogotnykh cherepakh Kazakhstana]. -  Soobshchen. Akad. Nauk Gruzii, 145, 3: 647-650.

Kordikova, E.G. (1991a): Catalogue of fossil trionychids of Soviet Union  [Katalog iskopayemykh tryokhkogotnykh cherepakh Sovetskogo Soyuza] Preprint,  "Metsniereba", pp. 1-15; Tbilisi.

Kordikova, E.G. (1991b): Fossil trionychids of Kazakhstan [Iskopayemyye tryokhkogotnyye cherepakhi Kazakhstana]. - Avtoref.... kand. geol.-mineral. nauk, pp. 1-16; Tbilisi.

Kordikova, E.G. (1991c): Fossil trionychids of Kazakhstan [Iskopayemyye tryokhkogotnyye cherepakhi Kazakhstana]. - Dissertation ... kand. geol.-mineral. nauk, Tbilisi, pp. 1-354.

Kordikova, E.G. (1991d): Late Cretaceous trionychids in Kazakhstan. - Intern. Sympos. Nonmarine Cretaceous Correlation, pp. 29-30; Alma-Ata. 

Kordikova, E.G. (1989): New data about the large Oligocene trionychids of Kazakhstan [Novyye dannyye o krupnykh oligotsenovykh trioniksakh Kazakhstana]. - Voprosy gerpetologii, pp. 114-116; Kiev.

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